system by Rishi Gauthama is the science of debate and discussion
with reasoning and arguing. Logic is only a part of the Nyaya. It
tells that knowledge implies four conditions: (i) the subject or
Pramaata, (ii) the object or Prameya, (iii) the resulting state
of cognition or Pramiti and (iv) the means of knowledge or Pramaana.
says that the actions of man produce their fruits called adrishta,
which is supervised and controlled by God. God does not alter the
course of adhrishta but renders its operation possible as the bestower
of fruits of action. The cause of bondage is ignorance (Ajnaana).
Twenty-one kinds of pain constitute bondage. Isvara has Eternal
knowledge or nithya-jnana, who also has desire- action (Icchaa-Kriya)
as qualities or gunas. He is all-pervading or Vibhu.
knowledge or mithya-jnana is the root of all misery and pain. It
leads to the faults of likes and dislikes and proceeds to karma
or action, good or bad. This forces a man into repeated cycle of
birth as reward or punishment. Moksha is the destruction of pain
and bondage. One gets the release and attains supreme felicity by
realizing true knowledge of the Aathman.
Vaiseshika system by Rishi Kanada arranges its inquiries
into categories (padarthas); such as substance, quality, action,
general and particular property and non-existance. The knowledge
of padartha is the means of attaining supreme good, resulting from
the knowledge by a particular dharma.
Kanada does not openly refer to God in his suthras. The formation
of the world was the result of adhrishta, the unseen force of karma
or actions. The followers of Kanada introduced the concept of God
as the efficient cause of the world. The atoms are the material
cause of this universe. The body is subtle in pralaya and gross
in creation. The time, place and circumstances of birth, family
and life span are all determined by adhrishta.
of soul with body is called birth, disjunction is death and moksha
is the non-existance of the conjunction with body, no potential
body existing. Pleasure and pain result from the contact of soul,
sense, mind and object. Desire and infatuation or moha arises from
pleasure and aversion or hatred arises from pain. Intuitive knowledge
of the Self destroys false knowledge. Consequently, all faults of
moha will vanish.