Basic Lessons on Hindu Dharma
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  Basic Lessons on Hindu Dharma ~ Level - 1  
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Chapter - 3:
A Basic Study of the Six Dharsanas
 
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HR103 - 04
Teachings of the Six Dharsanas explaining the Principles of Vedas
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Lesson: 3-04
A Synthetical Approach of Sãnkhya and Yoga System
Parinãma Vãda of Sankhya - Yoga schools of Dharsanas in Vedic Teachings
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Spiritual Disciplines of Darsanas explaining the Universe as seen by the Sages
 
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In Sãnkhya system by Rishi Kapila, there is no analytical inquiry into the universe. There is a synthetical system starting from a primordial principle or thatthva called Prakrithi which evolves and brings forth everything else. Perception, inference and right affirmation are the three proofs on Sankhya. Prakrithi is eternal, has no cause but is the cause of all effects. It is crude matter without form. Prakrithi creates only when it comes in contact with Purusha. This is done for the emancipation of each soul. They bind the soul with a triple bond.

Prakrithi is composed of the three gunas. All objects are composed of the three gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and their interaction lead to evolution or manifestation. All objects and actions are made of two ultimate realities, Purusha and Prakrithi. Purusha is without beginning or end and without attributes or qualities and are infinite in number. Bondage belongs to only Prakrithi and Purusha is eternally free.

The Yoga system, founded by Pathanjali Maharishi, is a branch or supplement to Sãnkhya. Yoga is restraint of the activities of the mind and is the union of the individual soul with the Supreme Soul. Pathanjali's Yoga is Raja yoga or ashtanga yoga, which deals with discipline of the mind and its psychic powers. Hatha yoga deals with methods of bodily control and regulation of breath. Its culmination leads to Raja Yoga.

In Kapila's Sãnkhya there is no mention of Ishvara or God. In Pathanjali's `Yoga', there is a special Purusha or Ishvara. It accepts the metaphysical view of the Sãnkhya system, but it lays emphasis on the practical side of self-discipline and concentration of will power for the realization of the absolute unity of the Purusha. It claims greater orthodoxy than Sãnkhya by acknowledging the existence of a Supreme Being or Ishvara.

In Pathanjali's Yoga system, He is a special Purusha or a particular Soul unaffected by afflictions, works, fruition and vehicles. It describes the ethical discipline of Yama and Niyama, certain virtues to be followed, [see lesson 93 of 2nd Part] and the chief of them is nonviolence or ahimsa. Avidhya is the main cause of our troubles that leads to ego, desires and aversion that veils the spiritual vision. Devotion to God gives freedom.

 
 

 

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Lessons: - :~: 3-01 :~: 3-02 :~: 3-03 :~: 3-04 :~: 3-05 :~: 3-06 :~: 3-07 :~: 3-08 :~:
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