Brahma Suthras of Vyasa Maharishi are the basis of Vedanthic philosophy,
widely followed by all Hindus. The teachings of other Dharsanas,
Agamas and traditions of Smartha Sampradaya, Saiva, Vaishnava
and Saktha systems also contributed to the teachings of many commentators
and the daily practice of religion.
have the systems of Sankara, Bhaskara, Ramanuja, Madhva, Vishnuswami,
Nimbarka, Vallabha, Chaithanya and the northern and Southern schools
of Saivism including Meykandar's Saiva Siddhantha. Among them,
Kevala Adhvaitha by Sri Sankara, Visishta-Advaitha by Sri Ramanuja
and Dvaitha by Sri Madhva are commentaries on Brahma Suthras of
Sri Vyasa and are the most popular.
Sankara wrote the Advaitha theory. Sankara's teachings closely
follow the traditions of Smarthas. In this, the Brahmam is absolute
and formless. He appears as the Saguna Brahmam in various forms
for the pious worship of devotees. The Supreme Brahmam and all
His creations are one and the same. They look different due to
the veil of Maya and due to our ignorance or avidhya.
Ramanuja wrote the Visishta-adhvaitha. In this, Brahmam is Narayana,
a personal God with attributes. It is not homogenous, has elements
of plurality and manifests in a diversified world. Sri Madhva's
Dhvaitha is strictly dualistic. The individual souls do not attain
equality with God. Here God is separate from His creations, which
are real and dependent on God. We also have other systems that
are slightly different including the Saiva Siddhantha of Sage
Meykandar in Tamil Nadu and Sakthi Yoga Philosophy which follow
Saivism and Sakthism.