the ancient times, a system of religious thinking based on devotion
to the Supreme Deity existed. The Bhakthi Schools worship a Personal
God with devotion. Earlier the twelve Alvar saints, whose works
were known as "Nalayira Prabhandam", a series of four
thousand Tamil poems, strengthened the Bhakthi movement in South
India. They were mainly based on Bhakthi concept. Sri Natha Muni
raised the Prabhanda to the levels of Vedas. Sri Yamunacharya
laid the foundation to build the philosophy of Visishta-adhvatha.
to Sri Sankara, Karma or path of action and Bhakthi or the pathway
of devotion are the means to attain the Jnana or the pathway of
wisdom, realization and supreme knowledge, which is liberation
or Moksha. In Sri Ramanuja's teaching, Bhakthi Pathway is the
ultimate to reach God in Swarga. According to this concept, Karma,
the path of action or service, and Jnana, the path of wisdom and
knowledge, are only means for the Bhakthi pathway. The final emancipation
is attained only through Bhakthi or devotion, total surrender
or Saranaagathi and receiving the grace of the Lord.
Sri Madhvacharya postulated
a dualistic system, Dvaitham, out of Upanishads, Bhadavat-Gita
and Brahma Suthras; which is called the Prasthana Thraya. His
Vaishnavism is called Sadh-Vaishnavism, while Sri Ramanuja's is
known as Sri-Vaishnavism. Their systems have many points in common.
In Sri Madhva's system, Hari or Vishnu is the Supreme Being also
known as Narayana, who lives in Vaikunta or Swarga [Heaven] with
His consort Lakshmi.
world is real and the difference is true. All Jivas are dependent
on Hari. Bhakthi, without faults, is the means of attaining salvation.
God is the only independent reality. Souls and world are dependent
reality, which are separate from Him. He is the efficient cause
and not the material cause. No two jivas are alike. The jivas
are different from God and do not attain equality with God. They
are entitled only to serve Him. The grace of Lord Narayana descends
on those souls who are pure, devoid of all "Upaathis"