@
Hindu Heritage Study Program  
 
0
 
\
o
\
o
 
Hindu Heritage Study Program
 
o
o
Principles and Practice of Hindu Dharma
o
o
o
-HR 201.03
Understanding the History of the Religious Faith in India
Evolution of the Beliefs and Culture over the Time of Several Millennia
-~ Level - 2 ~
o
 
     
 
0
 
\
 
-
Lesson - 43 :
Ages of Agamas, Vedangas and Ithihasas
Age of the Suthras and Puranas - ( From 500 B.C. to 650 A.D )
Please see below
for Lesson - 44
--
 
 

 

 

Age of Vedanga (500 to 200 B.C.): The age of Vedangas and Kalpa Suthras starts in 500 B.C. with the fall of the Shishunaga Dynasty in Magadha Kingdom and ends in 200 B.C. after glorious reign of Ashoka and the end of Mauriyan rule in 185 B.C. This period also saw the Nanda empire in the North, the Mauriyan King Chandraguptha, Kingdoms in the South flourishing with Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers and Andhra kings. The invasion and retreat of the great king Alexander and the defeat of Selucus occurred in this period. During this period, Vedic studies were organized and systematized and works on Vedangas and Sutras were written. Saivism and Vaishnavism developed in the Hindu fold.

Buddhism that started in the end of earlier age of Upanishads, started spreading all over India and South East Asia under Asoka's rule. Jainism also spread to the South under Bhadrabahu. The five Suthra texts and Kautilya's Arthasasthra were written at this time. Carvings of Surya and Indra at Bhaja, Cave Temple paintings and Ashoka pillar edicts belong to this age. Sages Apasthamba, Ashvalayana, Bhadrabhahu, Kautilya, Kings Chandraguptha and Ashoka were in this period.

Age of Epics (200 BC to 300 AD).: During the Epic age, Indian frontiers were attacked by Bactrian Greeks, Parthians, Shakas and Kushanas. The famous empires of Kanishkas in northwest, Shunga and Kanva in Magadha and Satavahana in Deccan were in power. Chera, Chola and Pandya kingdoms were in the South and the Pallava power just started at this time. After the fall of the Mauriyan empire, Hindu Renaissance started.

Ancient laws were codified with the Smritis of Manu and Yajnavalkya. The six Schools of Darshanas were clearly written and organized. The earlier writings of Mahabharatha and Ramayana were enlarged and popularized. Pathanjali's Mahbhashya and Bharatha's Natyasasthra were written at this age.

 
\    
\    
\ \  
 
-
Lesson - 44 :
Ages of Smrithis, Suthras and Puranas
Age of the Smrithis and Puranas - ( 500 B.C. to 650 A.D. )
--
 
     
 

The Smrithis and Tamil Sangam: The Smrithis of Vasishtha and Parasara came later in this age. The works of Charaka and Sushrutha on medicine, several Buddhist and Prakrith literature, Jain Angas were written. Buddhist and Jain religion were popular in the South. Their thoughts influenced many of the literary works of Tamil Nadu at that time. They had many religious texts and secular books that were written at this time. The Tamil Sangam literature including Silappathikaram, Manimekalai and Thirukkural also were written at this time. The sculptures of Gandhara, Mathura schools, Amaravathi, Sanchi, Bodh-Gaya Temples and Ajanta caves were made at this time. Sages Manu, Badarayana (Vyasa), Gautama, Jaimini, and Tamil Kings Cheran Senguttuvan and Karikala Cholan belong to this age.

Age of Puranas (300 to 650 A.D.): The age of the Puranas, Darshanas and Agamas starts in 300 A.D. The Great Guptha Empire ruled in the North, Chalukyas in the Deccan, Pallavas in the South. Later, Harsha came to power in the North and Shashanka in the East India. Huna invasions occurred at this time. The Eighteen great puranas were edited and Hindu religious ideals were popularized through them. Congregational worship methods started and Temples were built during this age.

Saivism and Vaishnavism revived in the South as Buddhism spread to the Central and Southeast Asia. Settlers from the West like the Syrian Christian community formed in Travancore. The Agamas were popularized along with Vedic Hinduism. Saivism, Vaishnavism and Shakthism practices were started as main Agamic form of Hinduism. Sanskrit literature and several secular works flourished at this time along with the works of the great poet Kalidasa.

Several mathematical treatises and Shilpa sasthra for Temple and Deities and Thevaaram in Tamil were written. Several famous Temples, Pallava architecture and the great Iron pillar at Delhi (at Qutub Minar) were built at this time. King Chandraguptha-II (Vikramadhithya), Harsha, Narasimha Varma, Kalidasa, Tamil Saivite leaders like Thirugnana Sambhandar, Appar, and Sundarar belong to this age.

 
  \  
  0  
 

** - Please Note: - The correct terminology to be used above are: "Saivam, Vaishnavam, Saktham and Bauddham" here. - However, to avoid confusion among new readers who learnt the terms like "Saivite, "Vaishnavite" etc., in Western Texts, I have used those terms in some places. Please learn to modify and use correct terminology.

 
  0  
 
0
 
 
o
 
 
Chapter - 3 - A Review of the History of Hindu Traditions - Lessons 43 & 44
o
 
 
0
Go to Lessons: - :~: 33 & 34 :~: 35 & 36 :~: 37 & 38 :~: 39 & 40 :~: 41 & 42 :~: 43 & 44 :~: 45 & 46 :~: 47 & 48 :
 
 
o
 
 

@