medieval period starts with the Bhakthi form of Hinduism in
1000 A.D. and in its first part of 400 years saw the piece-meal
conquest of Muslim invaders, the establishment of the Moghul empire
and the decline of Rajput power. The later Chalukya were ruling
in Deccan and Cholas were in Tamilnadu. Vijayanagar empire came
to power at this time.
the religious persecution destroyed the practice of rituals and
the Temple worship in the North, inter-group rivalry among kings
in the South invited the Muslim rulers to assist them and ultimately
take over the land. Many Temples in the South were looted by the
occupying forces and were destroyed of all wealth and architecture.
Visishta-advaitham of Sri Ramanuja Acharya and Dvaitham of Sri Madhva
Acharya forms of devotional Bhakthi system of Vaishnavism and belong
to this time. This period also saw the rise of Saiva Siddhantha
and Veera Saiva systems. With these changes in the practice, teachings
of Buddhism were absorbed and the spread of also Jainism declined.
The Vedic commentaries of Sayana, Jayadeva's Gita Govinda, and Sarnga
Deva's works on Music 'Sangitha Ratnakara' and in South India Kambar's
Ramayanam and Sekkizhar's Periyapuranam in Tamil belong to this
great Temples of the South India were built during this time.
The famous Chola bronzes, Nataraja, Nepal and Tibet bronzes, Sculptures
of Konarak and Puri and the Hoysala architecture of Mysore are famous
in this period. Vaishnavite Saints Ramanuja, Madhva and Vedantha
Desika belong to the later period of this age.
the rise of Buddhist and Jain influence gave rise to Sri Sankara's
Philosophy and Advaita theory in the previous age, the arrival of
Islamic thoughts, Moghul rule and Judo-Christian influence gave
rise to the popularity and the rise of Bhakthi form of Hinduism,
group prayers and the Dvaitha and Visishta-advaitha Theory of Sri
Madhva and Sri Ramanuja. Similarly Islamic influence and Mogul rule
later gave rise to the reform movements of Chaitanya, Kabir and
Guru Nanak. This was the beginning of Judeo-Christian influence,
by those who came as refugees, and later as traders and rulers.