of traders and refugees from the West carrying the Christian and
Islamic faith along with their preachers and armies attracted some
attention of some illiterate people and those in the periphery of
the social structure, while the invading armies destroyed all the
symbols of the local faiths. Onslaught of Judeo-Christian culture
was well countered by the revival of devotional Bhakthi Yoga and
Visishta-adhvaitha theory of Sri Ramanuja which modified the principles
invasion, Persian influx, Zoroastrian refugees and Moghul rule bringing
the Islamic and Parsi beliefs lead to the appearance of Sri Madhva
and other leaders with Dhvaitha philosophy of Dualism and later
by Sufiism, Kabir Panthis and Sikhism. Thus, the onslaught of varying
faiths that often came with political power, occasionally by large
influx of refugees and preachers could not make any inroads in Hindu
religious thoughts due to its flexibility.
There were divisions of followers of Siva, Vishnu and Sakthi and
those who followed the rituals of Veda as the ultimate in the practice
of Hinduism. There was fight among these groups along these lines.
There was also division of the community horizontally through a
caste system as a result of these invasions of alien thoughts and
struggle for survival.
with independence struggle against alien rules and a new renaissance,
unification of various segments of society has been taking place.
During the 400 years of invasion and occupation and later rule by
the Islamic kings of Turkey, Persia and Mogul kingdom in many areas
all over India, their rule led to a decline of Hindu faith along
with destruction of the Temples and also the very fabric of Hindu
culture in some areas. Some cultural traditions and the dress and
language also got the Islamic influence. Later 200 years of British
rule brought the Western influence of the language, tradition and