system by Rishi Gauthama is the science of debate and discussion
with reasoning and arguing. Logic is only a part of the Nyaya. It
tells that knowledge implies four conditions: (i) the subject or
Pramaata, (ii) the object or Prameya, (iii) the resulting state
of cognition or Pramiti and (iv) the means of knowledge or Pramaana.
Nyaaya says that the actions of man produce their fruits called
adrishta which is supervised and controlled by God. God does not
alter the course of adhrishta but renders its operation possible
as the bestower of fruits of action. The cause of bondage is ignorance
kinds of pain constitute bondage. Isvara has Eternal knowledge or
nithya-jñana, who also has desire- action (Icchaa-Kriya)
as qualities or gunas. He is all-pervading or Vibhu. False knowledge
or mithyaa-jñana is the root of all misery and pain. It leads
to the faults of likes and dislikes and proceeds to karma or action,
good or bad. This forces a man into repeated cycle of birth as reward
or punishment. Moksha is the destruction of pain and bondage. One
gets the release and attains supreme felicity by realizing true
knowledge of the Aathman.
Vaiseshika system by Rishi Kanada arranges its inquiries
into categories (padaartha); such as substance, quality, action,
general and particular property and non-existance. The knowledge
of padaartha is the means of attaining supreme good, resulting from
the knowledge by a particular dharma. Sage Kanada does not openly
refer to God in his suthras. The formation of the world was the
result of adhrishta, the unseen force of karma or actions.
followers of Kanada introduced the concept of God as the
efficient cause of the world. The atoms are the material cause of
this universe. The body is subtle in pralaya and gross in creation.
The time, place and circumstances of birth, family and life span
are all determined by adhrishta. Conjunction of soul with body is
called birth, disjunction is death and moksha is the non-existance
of the conjunction with body, no potential body existing.
and pain result from the contact of soul, sense, mind and object.
Desire and infatuation or moha arises from pleasure and aversion
or hatred arises from pain. Intuitive knowledge of the Self destroys
false knowledge. Consequently, all faults of moha will vanish.