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Ancient Hindu Scriptures
 
 
A G A M A S
SCIENCE AND ART OF TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION
 
 
POORNA PRAGNA - Srinivasaprasad Kidambi
 
Namaha parama rishibhyo
Sri gurubhyo namaha
 
  
Part I - ( Definition, Sources, and Classification )
Introduction
 
 

Ancient cultures for centuries all across the continents built huge structures for places of worship, observatories, burial places. The size and layout was so complex and perfect to indicate that the basis of such constructions must be sound scientific principles of most advanced branches of engineering sciences. The need for such huge places also must have been dictated by more pressing and practical concerns in public policy, agriculture and public health rather than just to show the pomp of a king. Many of these structures all over the world are now available in ruins or completely destroyed excepting many of the structures in India and across the East Asian Buddhist countries like Burma, China and Japan. This successful destruction was perpetuated from 4th century onwards by various plethoras of groups of religious zealots, hate groups and several nomadic tribes as a tool to propagate their faiths and religious beliefs and intimidate the society following existing cultures and traditions. In the modern day when such atrocious acts cannot be perpetuated, the some societies are using multinational corporations, rebellious armies, Religious fundamentalists and some hate groups to destroy these structures in the name of land reforms, modernization of agriculture and industrialization.

 
 

If nothing works, they achieve their goal by organizing and creating terrorist and separatist groups . Recently a spate of these structures are being discovered in Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, India and Australia on land and under sea. These newly discovered sites remarkably resemble in design, content and construction, with existing Oriental (Asian, Indian) structures. In the absence of any knowledge about these structures in India or in Asia or deliberately omitting them from even mentioning as existing, or by deliberately not encouraging the authoritative texts in this field of architecture dealing with such constructions from being translated in to western languages, the western academia is throwing lot of new theories of speculative nature. Their bias towards Judeo- Christian origin and development of civilization is so missionary that they even want to destroy these texts by encouraging third world governments to not to support the small press that helps to publish the texts that deal with the scientific principles of such constructions.

 
 

Please refer the following texts for a detailed discussion.
1. Dope Inc., Boston Bankers and Soviet Communists, by editors of Executive Intelligence Review, New Benjamin Franklin House, New York 1986. Pp 93-pp 498.
2. Thy Will Be Done, The conquest of the Amazon, Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the age of oil. Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett, Harper Collins, 1995. Pp 09-pp 929.

 
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The knowledge for most part of the time handed over in through the oral tradition of learning Shruthi, has to be printed and preserved before the knowledgeable persons in these fields completely vanish. Even in places from India to Japan where these mind boggling super structures are preserved intact along with the texts and commentaries, thousands of practitioners in the designing and engineering fields of the above field of science exist, the bias of the same academicians both western and western trained native scholars, is creating a plethora of speculative theories to discredit the genuine scholars in the above disciplines and condemn them. Due largely to lack of support from mainstream academicians, limitations of language and the governmental negligence towards those who can interpret the texts, explain the science and art of the process of the construction are fast vanishing. This book is an attempt to lift the, so called, modern scientific disciplines of archeological-astronomy and archeology from such bias and academic dishonesty to validate non biased academic sciences and to give boost to all those silent scholars to continue their work. This book is an attempt to translate the vast array of texts that exist in the above scientific fields so that the researchers will be able to make an informed decision.

From the time the Vedas codified the engineering sciences dealing with construction - be it at individual level (house, farm yard, etc) or at macro level (village, town, city planning, forts, irrigation, roads, canals etc) - are grouped under generic field of knowledge called Sthapathya Veda (Science of Forms) or Shilpa Veda (Science of Creation). Sthapthya Veda is the Upa Veda (supplementary branch) for Atharva Veda. Within Sthapathya Veda the planning, designing, construction of individual houses, farms, and villages, towns, cities, roads, canals, parks, irrigation, public works etc are codified under Vasthu Sasthra (Science of Structural Formations). The planning, engineering, designing, of community places of worship, temples, sacrificial altars are codified under Agama Sasthra (Science of Temple Construction).

 
 

The Source of Agamas

Agamas draw their theory and practice from many sources. The following is the brief description of the various sources of Agamas.

The Vedas
The contents of the ancient texts referred to as Vedas can be summarized with the single Sanskrit word dharma (that which evolves into omniscience). Vedas are vast and comprehensive body of knowledge, properly known in its entirety as Shruti, though generally referred to as simply Vedas, they encompass literally tens of thousands of texts of many classifications, including those properly called Vedas, as well as collections called Brahmanaas, Aranyakaas, Upanishads, Prathisakhyas, Shroutha Suthraas, Gruhya Suthras, Samhithas, Puranas, Upavedas, Vedaangaas, Darshanas, etc. The actual dates of composition and compilation of the Vedas (Shruti) is made in to a dispute by biased western linguists and Missionary Fathers who do not want to accept anything older than 7,000 years as that is the date of creation according to New Testament, or King James version of bible. No other scientists belonging to any other behavioral sciences or history or archeology never ever made any attempt so far to date these texts in any scientific way conceivable.

 
 

See below discussion on The Vedas.
Sasthra: A rational scientific discipline of particular field.
The word comes from Sanskrit root Sashu anusasane, meaning decipline.

 
   
 

According to Indian Vedic scholars, Vedic Knowledge exists for ever as it deals with the force or the forces of creation, evolution and dissolution of Universe(s) which the Vedas call with a feminine noun Sakthi or or neuter noun Brahman. It is only Rishis, sages or seers in their evolved states of consciousness realizes the knowledge and transmits the same (the Process of Becoming a Rishi and the methodology of acquiring true knowledge) to the interested individuals with out any cost or tuition fees by way of Oral Tradition of Teaching called Shruthi. Historically, Rishi Veda Vyasa completed the first compilation of the Vedas in written book form at the beginning of kali era for the coming generations. It is believed that in the kali era the human mind will not be capable of remembering such vast annals of information and knowledge. So it is simple fact that if we determine the beginning of the present kali era then we know the first compilation date of the Vedas in textual form. But unfortunately none of the linguists or academicians are anywhere close to even accept the historical account of ancient Indian texts. By discarding the ancient Indian texts as mythology plethora of unscientific standards were created since Mr. Max Muller, a catholic priest, funded by British first proposed the solar and lunar myth stories as the origin of Vedas. Also, though deliberately and totally side lining one of the most important historical treatise of Kalhana the official historian of Kashmir Kings who details dynasties of kings after the war of Kurukshetra which is officially the starting date of Kali era, and by claiming that the text written by Kalhana is nothing but his imagination, another important historical source is buried and paved way for erroneous theories. The first official dating of the origin of Vedas was given to be around 1500 B.C. The reason for this conclusion is that there was a mention of gold in Vedas and thus they must have been written after the discovery of gold, and as of then (during the time of Mr. Max Muller) it is established that Egyptians used gold 2500 B.C., logically Vedas must have been written in 1500 B.C. According to modern archeological and astro-archeological evidence scientists accepted the first compilation of the Vedas must have been accomplished between 450,000 B.C. to 420,000 B.C. (dating confirmed by modern techniques such as carbon dating, thermo luminescence dating, sattelite imagery) but still concurs with the 1500 B.C. dating by philologists and linguists with no hard core scientific evidence from archeology, anthropology and archeo-astronomy because of Judeo- Christian bias . In order to over come the scientific findings they came up with a technique called Calibrated Carbon Dating. This simply means if there is proof from advanced sciences that and existing structure dates back to thousands of years, and we cannot explain the phenomenon, then the scientists can reduce the actual date to suit the accepted social and behavioral theories. For example, if a temple in South America dates back to, say, 30,000 B.C. then, as it is an anomaly and we have to accept that there is civilization in Americas long before Moses and Abraham, which does not fit accepted academic thought, we can conveniently say despite scientific evidence to the contrary, that the temple is only 3,000 years old to suit the existing theories of migrations of people across Americas. The process is calibrated carbon dating comes handy in these situations. This method started just two years before.

 
 

Rishi means he who pursues and understands the truth about Universe. A vague equivalent is True Scientist who pursues only Truth not biased by ANY interests.
The same scholars spending and will spend billions of dollars in proving though in vain that Bible is history and everything said and done in Bible has to have a scientific basis.
Biblical creation account is 7000 years old. So every thing should be within this range.

 
   
 

The Vedas form the basis of what to the West is now known as Hinduism and Buddhism, but in the East is called simply "followers of Dharma". As discussed earlier these Vedas, or Shruti, are said to have been compiled under the general direction of the sage Maharishi Veda Vyasa. Working with four of his principal disciples, who in turn oversaw the work of thousands of other sages, they collected and compiled existing works from a wide variety of sources after ascertaining which were authentic records of true knowledge. All of those sages involved in the collecting and compiling of these works, as well as the authors whose works were selected to be included in the Vedas (Shruthi), are believed to have been rishis or enlightened beings.
After the whole of this Vedic literature had been collected and compiled, these works were then fully and exhaustively indexed and cross-referenced, so that the result is a closed system of knowledge. There is, therefore, no dispute as to which existing works form an authentic part of these collections--if it is not listed in the indexes, it cannot claim to be a part of Shruti (Vedic) literature. It is for these reasons that those who call themselves "followers of Dharma" tend to consider the actual Vedic or Shruti literature as the final written authority in ascertaining truth. The authors of this work, dispite many years of intensive study of thousands of Vedic texts, have found no contradictions within these works.

 
 
Table 1. Vedas and Upa Vedas
Each of the Veda has a Upa Veda or Supplemental Veda. The following table summarizes the Vedas and their Upa Vedass.
Each Veda or Upa Veda is a Codex of hundreds or some time even thousands of individual texts which incorporate various styles of presentation of a particular subject matter under consideration. The following tables numbering 2 & 3 & 4 elaborate on the classification of Vedas and Upa Vedas.
 
 
S.No.
VedaUpa VedaRough English Equivalent
1
Rig VedaAyur VedaCodex of Life
2
Yajur VedaDhanur Veda Codex of War
3
Sama VedaGandharva VedaCodex of Vibration
4
Artharva VedaSthapathya VedaCodex of Forms
 
 

Within the Vedas a rishi is defined as "he who is truth or who perceived and fully realized the truth", being described as "one who fully realizes that all manifestation is Brahman, that he himself is Brahman, and who exists in this state continuously".

 
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Darshanas

The subject matter of the Vedas (Shruti) is classified into twelve broad general branches called Darshanas. For each branch there exists one apex text with and appendix Darshana or Sutra. Each Darshana serves to summarize and codify the whole of the knowledge on its given subject, the details of which are distributed among the vast array of Vedic literature. Encyclopedic in scope, they (darshanas) touch upon all aspects of a given subject, leaving the specific details to other Vedic branches. The following table summarizes the 12 darshanas. The first six of these darshanas provide theoretical basis for the latter six. The latter six are in a way interpretations of the first six darshanas in a given context that dictate either social or individual behaviour.

 
 
S.No. Darshana / Orthodox PhilosophiesRough English Equivalent
1. Vaisheshika Entire Physical Sciences
2. Samkhya Applied Sciences
3. Nyaya Emperical Sciences
4. Yoga Behavioral Evolution - Spiritual
5. Mimansa-Purva Behavioral Evolution - Social, Individual
6. Mimansa-Uttara Theoretical and Empirical Sciences dealing with Absolute
 
 
S.No. Heterodox PhilosophiesRough English Equivalent
7. Charvaka Material Interpretation
8. Jaina Ascetic Interpretation
9. Vaibhashika Environmental / Social interpretation
10. Soutantrika Tantric Interpretation - Individual Level
11. Yogacara Agamic and Yogic Interpretation - Social Level
12. Boudha Balanced Interpretation of 7 & 8
 
 

All Darshanas belonging to Upa Vedas are either unavailable, burnt, lost, [or given away to many universities across USA, Germany, Canada by Indian immigrants whose ancestors preserved them from centuries of oppression] or still preserved either in Nepal or in Tibet in monastries where they were taken when Nalanda and Taxila Universities were burned by the aliens. The apex text Shilpa Sutras supposed to be written by Maharishi Viswakarma or Sthapathya Sutras is not available.

Though Agama philosophy is referred to within each of these Vedas, the general principles of all elements of Agamas are found primarily within the Atharva Veda and in its branches or declensions, and codified in Shilpa sutras. Expanding upon the general outline contained in Atharva Veda are the Shilpa Sutras by Rishi Viswakarma. In addition to the apex Sutra Literature, there are Vedic sources which can be divided in to six tiers: 1)Upanishads, 2)Samhithas, 3) Tantras 4) Agamas and 5) Pradipikaas, Karikas, Matas 6) Vyakhyanas (Special renderings or commentaries).

 
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There is now evidence available to prove that the Chinese invasion of Tibet is partly motivated by the fact that they want to posses the ancient texts preserved. And infact there is evidence that they send some of these manuscripts to Chandigarh University to translate. Dr. Ruth Renya translated them and sent them back to both Chinese and to Indian scientists stating that the manuscripts contained detailed descriptions regarding building interstellar space ships. Few years latter Chinese announced that they are including parts of the process detailed in the texts in their space missions. Anti Gravity Hand Book, pp 130-135,Compiled by D. Hatcher Childress, Network/Adventures Unlimited Press., Stelle, Illinois 60919. (See the Appendix for photocopy of the page 130)

 
   
 

1. Upanishads
The second tier of Vedic texts that deal with Shilpa Sastra (Agamas and Vasthu), the Sthapathya Upanishads, supposed to be one hundred and twenty in number, and they serve to expand upon the basic principles of and practices of Agamas presented in the Vedas proper. It is here that the most precise presentation of the techniques and practice of design, construction techniques, layouts are found, making the Shilpa Upanishads among the more important source material for the present text.

 
 

2. Samhitas
After the Upanishads are the Samhithas, which provide for still further elaboration. Samhitha means "a compiled scientific text", indicating that the author has assembled information from existing Vedic sources (Shruti) and presented it in a very structured and precise format. There are hundreds of Samitha texts that deal with all elements and aspects of Agamas. Here all the concepts outlined within the Sthapathya Upanishads and Vedas proper are presented in great detail.
All minute details pertaining to carving of idols, worship methodologies, the performance of proper yagnas, proper celebrations on particular festive days, the precise size, shapes of idols etc are found in greater detail. Thus the Samhithas represent the most significant source material on the different Agama schools. Most important among these samhithas are Mrigendra Samhita, Viswamitra Samhita, Padma Samhita etc.

 
 

3. Tantras
The third level of Vedic sources on Agamas are Tantras. These form the most important basis of Agamas. They deal with very minute details of training the worshippers, initiation in to the process of worship, daily worship methodologies for different deities, daily celebrations, festivals etc. Tantraraja Tantra, Kularnava Tantra, Malini Vijaya Tantra, Lakshmi Tantra, Satwata Tantra Vamakeswara Tantra are few to mention. These texts specifically state for for which Agama they belong to as they deal with worship details for a particular diety. Some of the Tantras even explain the methods of individual house hold worship.

 
 

4. Agamas
Agamas are the fourth level of the sources. These texts end with the suffix Agama signifying that they specifically deal with theory of Agama only and not with the theory of Vasthu. The other mentioned above sources are applicable to Vasthu and Agama. These are very specific and precise in their nature, scope and presentation. Some Agama texts were even written to explain one particular temple's construction. Some times they deal with one aspect of a particular god like Lalitha aspect of Sakthi. Some of the important texts are Roravottara Agama, Vatula Sudha Agama, Karana Agama, Kamika Agama, Vaikhanasa Agama etc.

 
 

5. (Pra) Dipikas, Karikas and Matas
The Fifth level of Vedic sources, the Pradipikas, (additional Explanations) are renderings by great yogis of the information found in greater detail within the Samhithas Upanishads. There are many Pradipikas on Agamas. Of all Prapancha Sara by Sri Sankaracharya is a very important text in Sakthi Agamas. Shiva Kamini dipika is an important text among Shiva Agamas.

Karika means a specific scientific explanation for a specific subject matter under consideration. These are written by the practicing Agama Teachers, Shilpis at different times as a research presentations to reinforce the scientific principles behind a particular Agama theory. Sri Tatva Chintamani, Pratyabhigna Karika are such Texts.

Mata means opinion. It is the rendering or approach towards a particular Agama Principle, theory by practicing Shilpi, at a particular geographical location or after a particular astronomical event or after a particular lapse of time (usually more than 432,000 year cycles). These rendering are made only to make the agama theory workable after a major astronimical or geological event in the process of evolution. This is like a corollary to the main theory or an exception under certain given circumstances. Maya Mata (practiced in Americas, north and south, in native Indian cultures and by Mayans, Azetics, Tolemics erc), Viswakarma Mata (as practiced in Africa, Europe) are such two important texts.

 
 
6. Vyakhyanas
At sixth level are the Vyakhyaanaas. These sources are different arrangements of the existing Agamic knowledge made by various yogis/shilpis for the use of students at a specific time. All of these sources made it very clear that their rearrangements were made only for the convenience of aspiring students, and were in no way intended to expand upon, enlarge, refute or replace any of the teachings or systems of thought of the preceding Vedic sources. Thus these arrangements and names are not be mistaken as separate "branches" or schools of Agamic philosophy.
 
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Definition of Agama

agnavasthu samanthaasya gamyatha ithyaagamoo mathaha
tanuthe trayathe nithyam tantra mithi viduhu budhaha

Sabda kalpa Druma
The ever expanding and contracting forms of manifestation/creation (movable and non movable) and the relation between them is explained, so it is called Agama. The knowledge of Agama tries to synchronize and protect the delicate balance of creation, so it is also termed as Tantra.

tanothi vipulanaarthaan tantra mantra samavithaan
traanam cha kuruthe yasmaathanthramithyabhidhhiyathe

Kamika Agama. Tantra Tara Patala.
As the detailed explanation is provided for protecting the existing creation, it is called Tantra.
As we have seen Agama's primary purpose is to protect existing creation. Provide scientific explanations for the acts done under the Agama Texts. What is creation? The theory of creation in the Vedas has three different aspects and they are discussed in three different stages.
 
 

See Appendix 1 for a list of Pradipikas, Karikas and Matas.

 
   
 

 

 
   
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